HFCS was first introduced by Richard O. Marshall and Earl R. Kooi in 1957. They were, however, unsuccessful in making it viable for mass production. The industrial production process and creation was made by Dr. Y. Takasaki at the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan in 1965–1970. Dr. Y. Takasaki is known to many as the creator of HFCS. HFCS was rapidly introduced to many processed foods and soft drinks in the U.S. from about 1975 to 1985.
A system of sugar tariffs and sugar quotas imposed in 1977 in the United States significantly increased the cost of imported sugar and U.S. producers sought cheaper sources. High-fructose corn syrup, derived from corn, is more economical because the domestic U.S. prices of sugar are twice the global price and the price of corn is kept low through government subsidies paid to growers.
HFCS became an attractive substitute, and is preferred over cane sugar among the vast majority of American food and beverage manufacturers. Soft drink makers such as Coca-Cola and Pepsi use sugar in other nations, but switched to HFCS in the U.S. and Canada in 1984. Large corporations, such as Archer Daniels Midland, lobby for the continuation of government corn subsidies. - Institute Of Agriculture & Trade Policy
Health Effects: Obesity
According to Ferder, Ferder & Inserra, (2010) fructose consumption and obesity are linked because fructose consumption does not cause an insulin response. This is important because, without an insulin response after consumption of a high-fructose food, there is no suppression of appetite, which is normally induced by hyperinsulinemia after a meal. If satiety or suppression of appetite does not occur, then the person will continue eating or overeating as the case may be. This is linked with obesity because excess calories are converted and stored as fat, and when this process continues over a long period of time it results in obesity - Current Hypertension
Health Effects: Metabolic Syndrome
According to the American Heart Association, metabolic syndrome is defined as the manifestation of numerous metabolic risk factors in one individual. These risk factors include high blood pressure, abdominal fat, high blood triglyceride levels, high uric acid levels, insulin resistance and a state of chronic inflammation. Individuals with metabolic syndrome are at a high risk for developing other related health issues such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.
According to Nseir, Nassar and Assy (2010), the onset of metabolic syndrome is triggered by visceral adipose tissue which is linked to the consumption of fructose. Fructose is related to adiposity through the increase in blood triglyceride levels caused by the consumption of this monosaccharide. This increased adiposity leads to both obesity and metabolic syndrome. - World Journal of Gastroenterology
Health Effects: Cardiovascular Disease
The Mayo Clinic defines cardiovascular disease as an umbrella term used to describe a wide variety of conditions affecting the heart. Currently, cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in the world as well as in the United States. One of the causes of cardiovascular disease is believed to be the consumption of high-fructose corn syrup. According to Parrish (2010), the metabolic processes involved in the breakdown of fructose can lead to a build up of uric acid. A build up of uric acid is one of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Parrish also references the link between fructose and blood triglyceride levels as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, specifically atherosclerosis. - Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society
Health Effects: Diabetes
According to Brown, Dulloo and Montani, fructose consumption is linked to the onset of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (2008). In healthy individuals after two weeks on a high-fructose diet, a 25% reduction in insulin sensitivity was seen. - International Journey Of Obesity
Scientists found that drinks containing HFCS had high levels of reactive compounds that have been shown by others to have the potential to trigger cell and tissue damage that could cause Diabetes. - Science Daily
Chi-Tang Ho Ph.D found that soft drinks sweetened with HFCS are "astonishingly high" in harmful carbonyl compounds, such as methylglyoxal, when compared to a diet soft drink control, and concluded that sucrose does not have the same tendency to produce these compounds. According to the author, reactive carbonyls also are elevated in the blood of individuals with diabetes and linked to the complications of that disease. Based on the study data, the author estimates that a single can of soda contains about five times the concentration of reactive carbonyls than the concentration found in the blood of an adult person with diabetes. - American Chemical Society